Creatinine is a waste product that the body produces. The kidneys remove creatinine from the blood and leave it in urine. Creatinine in normal urine is found in amounts ranging from 20.0-400.0 mg/dL.
Specimens with urine creatinine values less than 20 mg/dL could be considered adulterated or diluted. Low creatinine values can also be a result of kidney insufficiencies. High levels of creatinine in urine could indicate kidney insufficiencies as well as high muscle tone or diabetes. The patient’s full clinical history should be reviewed when determining the cause of a low urine creatinine value.
Normal urine has a pH value between 4.5 and 9.0; Urine with pH values out of this range could be considered adulterated.
Specific gravity measures the density of urine to the density of water. It is used to determine if a urine sample has been diluted. Normal values for specific gravity in human urine range from 1.003-1.025.
Values below 1.003 could be considered adulterated or diluted. Diluted urine samples could be the result of physically adding water to a urine sample or due to “fluid hydration”. Fluid hydration is the rapid intake of water or other liquid beverages to provide a watered down sample in which the testing is no longer reliable or reflective of recent drug use.
Values above 1.025 could indicate the urine is too concentrated as a result of dehydration, diarrhea or excessive vomiting.
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